Streptococcus pneumoniae for Gram-positive cocci double, and anaerobes, and was known as the Bath Micrococcus, pneumococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, until 1974 was officially named as Streptococcus pneumoniae.Function or anatomy of the absence of spleen in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive infection caused by systemic high-risk groups, so this caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae systemic disease known as invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).Are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease such as meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, osteomyelitis, such as an important pathogen, but also the death of 2 children under the age of one of the main reasons. All over the world each year has around 1.2 million children die from pneumococcal infections, the mortality rate more than any one vaccine-preventable pathogens.
Infants and preschool children in the pathogen to carry a high rate of asymptomatic (> 50%), especially in day-care institutions and children in crowded places. IPD incidence in different countries and different ethnic origin. And in the same region, over time, will also change the type pathogen. Is now clear that the IPD caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenic material for the main capsular polysaccharide and hemolysin.
Not all carriers will have IDP. The main reason leading to IDP are: the body of the existence of systemic or local infection, local mucosal immunity lowering, congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. Such as low Agammaglobulinemia, complement deficiencies, neutropenia, such as missing spleen, HIV infection. Infants and young children in general a higher rate of incidence increases with age, decreased nearly 5-year-old age when the incidence declined rapidly after the age of 60 have increased the incidence of the peak once again appear in the elderly over the age of 65 patients.
IDP are the high season in winter, may be associated with other respiratory infections such as: influenza, mycoplasma, chlamydia infection prone secondary infection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In a relatively closed collective institutions such as schools, barracks, day-care centers and prisons, the emergence of a new strain will lead to the outbreak of IDP. Function or anatomy of the Absence of spleen is also a risk factor for IDP.
Penicillin for the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in the standard drugs, in clinical applications have more than half a century. But now drug-resistant strains have emerged, and have a more serious phenomenon of multi-drug resistant.The majority of reduced susceptibility to penicillin strains of the third generation, fourth generation cephalosporins are more sensitive, and amoxicillin can be used for the treatment of reduced susceptibility to penicillin strains. For patients with severe IDP, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone or cefepime are the preferred drugs. Alternative drugs, including carbapenems, the new generation of quinolones, clindamycin and vancomycin, such as.
IDP prevention include improving the living environment, give up bad habits, take part in physical exercise, active treatment of basic diseases, but the most effective preventive measure when the Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine.
In short, IDP is a global disease, the incidence of diseases and pathogens of other plant type with the national, regional, ethnic vary; a variety of factors influence its pathogenesis; its clinical features vary, most of the performance of non-specific, general multiple organ can be involved.
With sensitive, effective and rational application of antibiotics and vaccines continuous research and development, IDP morbidity will be reduced, but the emergence of many drug-resistant strains makes it an upward trend in incidence, death rate, an increase of the difficulty of clinical data expect the development of new vaccines, which in turn can more immune type strain, reduce resistance, reduce the occurrence of IDP .
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